Circulated Essay Instructions and Prompts:All essays are to be submitted as a .docx or .pdf file via Canvas, no later than Tuesday, March 14th at 11:59pm. Absolutely no late submissions will be accepted without express communication and permission from your TA prior to the due date. Each answer should be no longer than two (2) pages double-spaced, using 12-point Times New Roman font, and 1” margins. Thus, your entire submission will be approximately 6 pages long. At the beginning of each essay, you should explicitly indicate the prompt (A or B) to which you are responding.Try to be creative in your answers. Integrate your own thinking, examples and evidence from the course materials. Style and quality of writing will count in your grade. Make sure that your grammar checkers and spell checkers are turned on. In recent versions of Word, you do this by Word>Preferences>Spelling and grammar. Incorrect spelling and grammar will prevent you from receiving full credit. Answers will be graded based upon logic, evidence, analysis, and writing (among other things). They will also be graded on the use of specific evidence to support your arguments, coherence of arguments, clarity of your answers, and logical flow of your arguments.You must cite any sources that you use. You should include all your citations in one bibliography at the end of your 6 pages. We would like you to follow the APA style, which you can find at:http://guides.lib.uw.edu/research/citations/apa-styleWriting advice: each of your essays should be a self-contained essay. Also, because your answers must be short, you should use only brief quotations, and you should use few if any quotations. Quotations must not overwhelm your own thinking and analysis. They serve a purpose only when the exact wording is important. Otherwise, it is far better to use your own words, but to cite the idea.Please answer as directed, and be sure to answer all parts of each question. You must work alone, and the answer must be your own original work. Submitting your exam means that you have adhered to UW’s policy on academic misconduct, and, on your honor, that you have not violated it. Again, you are referred to the University’s policy on academic honesty (see the syllabus), to which you must adhere strictly. If you violate any of the provisions in this documented, this means that you have acted dishonorably. Plagiarism and other violations will, at the least, result in a “0” on this assignment and may be grounds for disciplinary action.For further details, see:http://depts.washington.edu/grading/conduct/ (Links to an external site.)Questions: 1. Choose either A or B (and indicate which one you have chosen).A. One of the themes that is implicit in A Civil Action is the nature of proof in establishing causation. Was sufficient evidence presented linking the exposure and the outcome? Consider this from the viewpoints of both science and law. Remembering that civil cases require proof of preponderance and evidence, and that criminal cases require guilt beyond a reasonable doubt, was the evidence sufficient for both criminal and civil convictions?B. Most apparently noninfectious diseases entail lags between exposure and disease of up to several decades. What problems does this cause in establishing links between exposure and outcome? Be as specific as you can, using examples from the class. 2. Choose either A or B.A. We have discussed and considered the ecology of disease, and the political ecology of disease. Using at least two examples from class and readings, apply the concepts of political ecology to understanding the consequences and causes of the construction of large dam projects, such as the Volta River (Akosambo) Dam. You may also wish to use the example from Kidder of a large dam that was constructed in Haiti.B. Support or refute the argument that ‘you cannot use disease ecology to explain the relationship between leukemia and environmental exposure in Woburn, MA, because leukemia is not an infectious disease.’ Is this true? Why or why not? 3. Choose either A or B.A. In class, Dr. Mayer argued that most of the emergence of new infectious diseases can be explained by social and environmental factors. Considering the ‘factors of emergence’, support or refute this argument, using at least two diseases of your choice.B. Use the factors of emergence to explain the appearance and spread of the disease in the film Contagion.I also attach some lecture notes to help with the questions.